Sabtu, 08 Mei 2010

Old Javanese literature

Old Javanese literature, or sometimes spelled as Old Javanese literature includes literature written in Old Javanese language in the period more or less written from the 9th century to 14th century AD, beginning with the Inscription of Sukabumi. These literary works were written either in prose (prose) and poetry (kakawin). These works include genres such as epic poems, statute law, the chronic (Chronicle), and religious books. Inherited ancient Javanese literature in manuscript form and inscription. Manuscripts containing the Old Javanese texts amount to thousands while the inscriptions there are tens and even hundreds of them. Although there must be noted that not all literary texts contain inscriptions.

Literary works written in Java is important in this period include Candakarana, Kakawin Ramayana and Mahabharata translation in the ancient Javanese language.

Old Javanese literary works most sustainable in Bali and was written on papyrus manuscripts. Although most of the ancient Javanese literature terlestarikan in Bali, Java and Madura, there is also a sustainable ancient Javanese literature. Even in Java there are also ancient Javanese texts that are not known in Bali.

Scientific research about the ancient Javanese literature began to flourish in the early 19th century and was originally pioneered by Stamford Raffles, Governor-General of the United Kingdom which ruled the island of Java. Apart from being a statesman, he is also interested in local culture. Together with his assistant, Colonel Colin Mackenzie, he collected and studied ancient Javanese manuscripts.



Regarding the Old Javanese term

The term ancient Javanese literature is a bit messier. This term may mean in Javanese literature before the advent of Islamic influence [1] or the more subtle divisions: Javanese literature the longest. So is the literature of Java before the Middle Javanese literature. Middle Javanese literature is the transition between Old Javanese literature and literature of New Java. In this article, this last notion is used.



Tradition decline

Sustainable ancient Javanese literature to this day largely derived in manuscript form that have been copied many times over. So they are rarely written in the original form as when first made, except if written on paper so durable materials such as stone, copper and others. The oldest inscriptions in the ancient Javanese language comes from the year 804, but its content is not a literary text. The oldest literary text on an inscription found on the inscription written Siwagreha dating from 856 AD.

While the oldest manuscript is a manuscript palm leaves from the 13th century and found in West Java. This manuscript contains the text Kakawin nypa Arjunawiwaha originating from the 11th century.



Overview

Many texts in the Old Javanese sustainable from the 9th century until the 14th century. But not all of these texts is the literary text. From this period bequeathed approximately 20 text 25 text prose and poetry. Most of these texts written after the 11th century.



Old Javanese poetry

List of Old Javanese Literature in prose

1.Candakarana Hyang

2.Sang Kamahayanikan

3.Brahmandapurana

4.Agastyaparwa

5.Uttarakanda

6.Adiparwa

7.Sabhaparwa

8.Wirataparwa, 996

9.Udyogaparwa

10.Bhismaparwa

11.Asramawasanaparwa

12.Mosalaparwa

13.Prasthanikaparwa

14.Swargarohanaparwa

15.Kunjarakarna



List of Old Javanese Literature in the form of poetry (kakawin)

1.Kakawin Oldest Java, 856

2.Kakawin Ramayana ~ 870

3.Kakawin Arjunawiwaha, mpu Kanwa, ~ 1030

4.Kakawin Kresnayana

5.Kakawin Sumanasantaka

6.Kakawin Smaradahana

7.Kakawin Bhomakawya

8.Kakawin Bhāratayuddha, mpu Sedah and Panuluh, 1157

9.Kakawin Hariwangsa

10.Kakawin Gatotkacasraya

11.Kakawin Wrettasañcaya

12.Kakawin Wrettayana

13.Kakawin Brahmandapurana

14.Kakawin Kunjarakarna, mpu "Hamlet"

15.Kakawin Nagarakertagama, mpu Prapanca, 1365

16.Kakawin Arjunawijaya, mpu Tantular

17.Kakawin Sutasoma, mpu Tantular

18.Kakawin Siwaratrikalpa, Kakawin Lubdhaka

19.Kakawin Parthayajna

20.Kakawin Nitisastra

21.Kakawin Nirarthaprakreta

22.Kakawin Dharmasunya

23.Kakawin Harisraya Sekar Tanakung

24.Kakawin Banawa

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